Titanium Sapphire crystal: Manufacturing method & application

Manufacturing method and application of Ti:Sapphire crystal

Ti:Sapphire crystal

Ti:Sapphire crystal is one of the most excellent tunable laser crystal. The result tunable laser crystal is developed by mixing trivalent titanium ions right into the matrix crystal. The crystal has the following advantages:

  • Large absorption band (400 ~ 600nm)
  • Vast exhaust band (650 ~ 1200nm)
  • Huge emission random sample (3×10-19cm2)
  • With a fluorescence life time of 3.2 us

Prep work technique of titanium sapphire crystal

Titanium sapphire laser crystals can be prepared by flame melting, drawing, zone melting, heat exchange, and also other techniques.

Flame fusion method

The flame melting technique is likewise called the Verneuil procedure. One of the approaches of synthetically creating solitary crystals from melt.

  • The fine powder of the prepared raw material is leaked from the mouth of the pipe. Evenly splashed in the hydrogen and oxygen flame to be thawed. And afterwards recondensed and took shape on the top layer of a seed crystal or “pear-shaped single crystal”.
  • Pear crystal development starts from the melting cone at the top. And its base drops and revolves during the growth process. To ensure that the melting surface area has the ideal temperature level to grow layer by layer.

The artificial sapphire crystals out while revolving have the features of rounded growth patterns. The shade bands like document patterns, grains, tadpole-shaped bubbles, etc. Artificial ruby, sapphire, spinel, rutile, man-made strontium titanate, and also other man-made sapphires can be created lowly without a crucible.


The crystal pulling technique, likewise known as the Czochralski approach, is an approach of drawing out top quality solitary crystals from melt designed by J.Czochralski in 1917. This approach can expand anemic sapphire, ruby, Yttrium light weight aluminum garnet, Gadolinium gallium garnet, alexandrite, as well as spinel vital sapphire crystals. In the 1960s, the pull method was additional turned into a more advanced method for dealt with crystal development– thaw overview mode. It is a growth strategy to control crystal form and also draw crystals with different cross-section forms directly from the thaw. It gets rid of the heavy mechanical processing of man-made crystals in commercial production, saves basic materials, and also minimizes manufacturing expenses.

Zone melting technique

The zone melting approach is also known as the Fz method, particularly the suspension zone melting technique. The zone melting approach utilizes heat to create a zone at one end of a semiconductor bar, integrating a solitary seed crystal. Adjust the temperature to make the melting zone gradually transfer to the various other end of bench, with the entire bar, and turn into a solitary crystal. The crystal direction is the same as the seed crystal.

Figure of quality

Figure of quality, FOM for short. Along with the needs of optical crystals, a crucial index to define the crystal top quality is the crystal FOM.

FOM= a490π/α800π, α490π, and α800π. Indicate the absorption coefficients of π polarized light at 490nm and also 800nm of the crystal, respectively.

Ti: sapphire laser

Upper power life time of Ti: sapphire laser change: 3us. Titanium-doped sapphire crystals are acknowledged as the very best tunable laser crystals as a result of their wide fluorescence spectrum, large emission cross-section, excellent thermal conductivity, high hardness, as well as stable physical and chemical residential or commercial properties. Titanium-doped sapphire laser is one of the solid-state lasers with the best tuning variety of result spectrum in the near-infrared band. Suppose the nonlinear optical regularity conversion strategy makes a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator by adjusting the appropriate criteria. Because case, people can get an infrared tunable source of light with high output power, high performance, broad tunable wavelength range, lengthy service life, small framework, and small size to meet the application requirements of optical communication, infrared countermeasures, environmental monitoring, as well as spectroscopy research study as well as other areas.

Ti: Sapphire laser is a solid-state laser making use of Ti: Al2O3 crystal as the laser medium. It is widely known for these reasons:

  • Its vast adjusting array (670nm ~ 1200nm)
  • Large result power (or power)
  • High conversion performance
  • Several other outstanding qualities

It has come to be one of the most quickly created, the most mature, the most practical, and also one of the most commonly used solid-state tunable laser until now.

Constantly running titanium sapphire laser

Pure constant operation of Ti: Sapphire laser was to start with accomplished by pumping hydrogen ion laser Then the constant laser outcome is acquired by pumping the copper vapor laser and also YAG laser The power can get to 10s of watts. The conversion performance can be approximately 40%. The wavelength tunable variety is 700nm ~ 900nm. On top of that, quasi-continuous laser result of the order of kHz is gotten utilizing the above lasers.

Pulsed running titanium sapphire laser

There is a great deal of research study in this area. In the very early days, the pump source was usually a flash light, dye laser pumped by the flash lamp, Q-switched Nd: YAG or Nd: YLF laser, and so forth. The acquired laser pulse width gets on the order of tens of ns. As a result of the extremely large gain profile of titanium-sapphire crystals, the ultra-short optical pulses obtained by the mode-locking operation have ended up being a research study hotspot. Active mode-locking can get ultra-short pulses with a pulse width of nearly 100fs.

Example of pulsed running titanium Sapphire laser

For instance, using a prism-type acousto-optic modulator as both a mode-locking device and also a receiver can generate ultra-short optical pulses with an adjusting series of almost 100nm. In passive mod-locking, ddi and also hitci dyes are used as saturable absorbents, and also the experimental outcomes of 50fs ~ 100fs pulse width have actually been acquired. On top of that, synchronous pump mode-locked and collision pulse mode-locked titanium-sapphire lasers have actually been examined as well as applied, both of which have pulse widths of 10s of fs. In the same period, added pulse mode-locking, paired dental caries resonance passive mode-locking, straight outside dental caries mode-locking, as well as particle mirror mode-locking was created as well as carried out, specifically.

Especially, self-mode-locked titanium-sapphire lasers were first reported in 1991 by Spence. This sort of laser can attain mode-locking procedure by including only one or 2 sets of diffusion prisms in the continual titanium sapphire laser resonator without any active or easy mode-locking gadgets as well as obtain the fs order of ultra-short optical pulses. As a result of the straightforward structure and affordable of the self-mode-locked laser, it rapidly became a location worldwide once it understood it. One of the most studied trouble is the self-starting issue of titanium sapphire self-mode-locked laser.

Tunable titanium sapphire laser

The adjusting range of the Ti sapphire laser can be encompassed blue as well as ultraviolet bands by frequency improvement. Many frequency conversion crystals are LiNbO3, KNbO3, LBO, BBO, and more. Through OPO and regularity doubling, the Ti sapphire laser can extend the laser output wavelength range to 200nm ~ 510nm. And also the conversion effectiveness can reach greater than 40%. Particularly, quasi-phase matching innovation, which has been suggested just recently, has brought in much focus because it can achieve ultra-wide array and high-efficiency wavelength tuning.

The narrow-width titanium-jewel laser is additionally being further studied. People can currently acquire dynamic single-mode laser outcome, and its frequency security is up to 1khz.

Final thought

As pointed out over, now, the solid-state laser stood for by the titanium-sapphire laser is a hot spot. Its research focuses are generally shown in the complying with aspects:

  • The advancement of Q-switched
  • Mode-locked
  • Setting choice
  • Various other operation settings integrated with the full solidification of laser. Specifically the development of fully curable Q-switched laser, fully treatable mode-locked laser, totally treatable single-mode as well as single-frequency laser, etc.

Study the regularity tuning innovation of the fully solidified laser and create the completely solidified wide-range tunable laser.

Read more: Modulation: electro optic modulation

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